Storing masks in RGB channels

Storing masks in RGB channels
Base image for the examples in this article

Finally returning to posting the original manuscripts of the articles I've written for 3D World magazine in 2014. This one was first published in issue 186 under the title "The Mighty Multimatte".


In an earlier piece we've been looking at raster images as data containers which may be used for storing various supplementary information as well as the pictures themselves. One of the most straightforward usage of these capabilities is rendering masks.

A lot can be done to an image after it has been rendered, in fact contemporary compositing packages even allow us to move a good deal of classical shading into post, often offering a much more interactive workflow. But even if you prefer to polish your beauty renders inside the 3D software till they come out with no need for extra touches, there still can be an urgent feedback from the client or the last little color tweak you'd need to apply under the time pressure – and compositing becomes a life savior again.


The perfect matte

However, the success of most compositing operations depends on how many elements you can isolate procedurally (that is without tracing them manually). And, no less important, with what precision (which refers to antialiasing first of all).

What we are looking for is the antialiased matte with the value of exactly 1.0 (white) for the pixels completely occupied by the object of interest, exactly 0 (black) for the rest of the image,* and antialising identical to that of the beauty render.

*Mask values above one and below zero cause no less problems than the gray ones.

Storing masks in RGB channels

Here are the results of a color-correction through the corresponding mattes. Left-to-right: with proper antialiasing, aliased, and with an attempt to fix aliasing through blurring. Note the corrupted edges in the middle example and dark halos in the right.

The power of three

It is easy to notice, that all this data requires only one raster channel to be stored. Thus a regular RGB image can naturally preserve quality mattes for 3 objects at a time. It only takes applying Constant shaders of pure Red (1,0,0), Green (0,1,0) and Blue (0,0,1) colors to the objects of interest and a black (0,0,0) Constant shader to the rest of the scene. Render layers functionality (implemented in every contemporary 3D package I can think of) comes very handy here. You might want to turn off slower features like shadows and GI for just the masks element, although typically setting all the shaders in the scene to Constant is already enough for the render engine to optimize itself sufficiently.*

*Due to smart sampling, antialiasing of the matte element might not be exactly the same as in beauty pass, still this is normally the closest one can practically get.

Alternatively, some renderers offer a pre-designed output variable (like MultiMatte in V-Ray) to render masks in the similar way. More channels (like Alpha, ZDepth, Motion Vectors or any arbitrary extra image channels) could be used for storing more mattes in the same image file of course, but typically it is not worth the time/inconvenience to set up first and extract later, compared to simply adding more RGB outputs to isolate more objects. Compositing applications and image editors naturally provide the tools to easily use any of the RGBA channels as a mask for an operation, which is another reason to stick with those. (In Photoshop, for instance, it only takes a Ctrl-click in the Channels panel to turn one into a selection).

Storing masks in RGB channels

An example of 2 objects isolated into the Red and Blue channels with Constant shaders.

What to mask?

Unless we're isolating parts of the scene with the specific purpose in mind, the main generic principle here is what will most likely require adjustments? Those are either the parts of the scene in doubt or simply the most important ones. Thus by default foreground/hero object is worth of its own matte (a channel). Grouping objects into mask channels based upon their materials or surface qualities is useful as well, since it allows for adjusting in terms of “highlights on metals” or “the color of liquids”.

But the most demanded usually are masks to separate meaningful objects and their distinct parts, especially those of the similar color, since it is tricky to isolate them with keying.

When working on a sequence of animated shots, consistency in using the same colors for the same objects from one shot to another becomes a very useful habit. This way, the same compositing setup can be propagated to the new shots most painlessly. It is generally better to add more MultiMatte outputs to the scene but stay consistent, rather than to try fitting only the masks needed for each shot into one image every time, so that in one shot a (let's say Green) channel would isolate the character, and in another – a prop.

Storing masks in RGB channels

When masking both an object and its parts in the same matte – think in terms of channels. For instance, if we want to utilize the Green channel in our example for the parts of the main object, we might want to use yellow (1,1,0) for the shader color to avoid holes in the Red channel.

The pitfalls

The world is imperfect though, and sometimes in a crunch there is simply no time to render the proper additional elements (or AOVs – Arbitrary Output Variables). That is the time to manipulate the existing data in comping in order to compensate for the missing. Individual mattes can be added, subtracted, inverted and intersected to get the new ones. Every AOV can be useful in compositing in one way or another, and any non-uniform pass can provide some masking information to be extracted – it only takes thinking of them as the source of masking data and understanding what exactly is encoded within each particular element (which we are going to touch upon in the following few issues).

And right now let's look at some dangers hidden along the way. The biggest pitfall is corrupting the edges of the matte (due to over-processing in post or the way it was rendered). 3D applications often offer some fast way of rendering object IDs (mattes) out of the box like assigning a random color or a discrete floating point luminance value to each. Though it might be faster to set up than the proper MultiMatte-like pass, the temptation should be generally avoided. With totally random colors per object the only way to procedurally separate one mask from another is keying, which will be often limited by close colors of other objects and thus quite crude.


Storing masks in RGB channels

The illustration above shows that you can not isolate one of the mattes stored sequentially by luminance while preserving the same antialiasing over different objects.

Even when assigning “the extended matte colors” (Red, Green, Blue, Yellow, Cyan, Magenta, Black, White, Alpha) instead of the totally random ones in order to store more mattes in a single image and separate them with various channel combinations rather than color keying later, the quality of the edges still gets endangered, although the results are much better typically. *This method should not be confused with the aforementioned usage of yellow, when it was still within a “one channel – one object” paradigm.

And no need to mention that any method of rendering masks/IDs without antialiasing is a no-go.


Divide and conquer

However, if going towards really heavy post-processing, it often becomes safer to render an object and its background separately. The trick in this case is not to forget the shadows and reflections, which means utilizing matte/shadow/ghost objects and visibility for primary (camera) rays functionality rather than just hiding the parts of the scene. 

35 comments:

  1. Thanks for sharing the information. I found the information very useful. That’s an awesome story you posted. I will come back to scan some more.

    ReplyDelete
  2. I was reading your article and wondered if you had considered creating an ebook on this subject. Your writing would sell it fast. You have a lot of writing talent. face masks

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you because you have been willing to share information with us. we will always appreciate all you have done here because I know you are very concerned with our. KN95 Masks

    ReplyDelete
  4. If you are looking for a job oriented practical based workday course syllabus curriculum at Workday training institutes in India then you are arrived at the right place called Workday training institutes in ameerpet because this institute is quite popular for this wonderful course not just in Workday training institutes in Jaipur and also proving job assistance for Workday training institutes in Pune

    ReplyDelete
  5. This article is very good. I like it.Interesting post. Thanks for posting this.Please share more information

    How to Properly Use The KN95 Face Mask

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hello, this weekend is good for me, since this time i am reading this enormous informative article here at my home. custom mask

    ReplyDelete
  7. It was wondering if I could use this write-up on my other website, I will link it back to your website though.Great Thanks. PPE supplies

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thanks for Sharing This Article.It is very so much valuable content. I hope these Commenting lists will help to my website
    workday online training
    best workday online training
    top workday online training

    ReplyDelete
  9. Crypto-currency as a modern form of the digital asset has received a worldwide acclaim for easy and faster financial transactions and its awareness among people have allowed them to take more interest in the field thus opening up new and advanced ways of making payments. Crypto.com Referral Code with the growing demand of this global phenomenon more,new traders and business owners are now willing to invest in this currency platform despite its fluctuating prices however it is quite difficult to choose the best one when the market is full. In the list of crypto-currencies bit-coins is one of the oldest and more popular Crypto.com Referral Code for the last few years. It is basically used for trading goods and services and has become the part of the so-called computerized block-chain system allowing anyone to use it thus increasing the craze among the public, Crypto.com Referral Code.

    Common people who are willing to purchase BTC can use an online wallet system for buying them safely in exchange of cash or credit cards and in a comfortable way from the thousands of BTC foundations around the world and keep them as assets for the future. Due to its popularity, many corporate investors are now accepting them as cross-border payments and the rise is unstoppable. With the advent of the internet and mobile devices,information gathering has become quite easy as a result the BTC financial transactions are accessible and its price is set in accordance with people’s choice and preferences thus leading to a profitable investment with Crypto.com Referral Code Code. Recent surveys have also proved that instability is good for BTC exchange as if there is instability and political unrest in the country due to which banks suffer then investing in BTC can surely be a better option. Again bit-coin transaction fees are pretty cheaper and a more convenient technology for making contracts thus attracting the crowd. The BTC can also be converted into different fiat currencies and is used for trading of securities, for land titles, document stamping, public rewards and vice versa.

    Another advanced block-chain project is Ethereumor the ETH which has served much more than just a digital form of crypto-currency Crypto.com Referral Code and its popularity in the last few decades have allowed billions of people to hold wallets for them. With the ease of the online world,the ETH have allowed the retailers and business organizations to accept them for trading purposes, therefore, can serve as the future of the financial system.

    ReplyDelete
  10. Our full Lace Front Wigs are all hand made with a lace cap. They are manufactured with thin lace sewn on top of the cap. Individual hairs are then sewn onto the thin lace. Each lace wig has lace all around the unit which will need to be cut prior to securing the wig to your head. You will need to cut along the hairline around your entire head. By doing so, you will be able to wear your hair anyway you like. You can even style ponytails, up-dos, etc. Once the Lace Wigs is successfully applied, it will appear that all the hair is growing directly from your head!

    Lace front wigs are hand-made with lace front cap & machine weft at back. Lace front wigs are manufactured with a thin lace that extends from ear to ear across the hairline. When you receive the wig, the lace will be quite long in the front. Cut and style according to your preference, as you will need to apply adhesive along the front of the wig. Once the wig is applied, you will still have Lace Wigs with a very natural appearance.
    TeamWigz Provide the Best Lace Front Wigs and Lace Wigs in Johannesburg and South Africa.

    ReplyDelete
  11. 360Guide was born from passion for action sports, passion for writing and interest in the Internet. We have been snowboarding and surfing for a long time. We also enjoy wakeboarding and mountain biking and actually any sport that gives you adrenaline, soul, lifestyle, puts you outside and connects you with nature.

    From all the sports mentioned on this website, surfing is our biggest love. Since conditions over here are pretty bad, much more energy and inner fire must be given to the sport. Surfing freezing cold waters, shitty windswells, making our own surfboards and traveling all over the world… all this is behind us and we are looking forward to more of the same.

    Snowboarding is our second love… there is nothing more beautiful than powder covered mountains on a crisp bluebird sky morning. And all others are not far behind.

    The main goal of this website is to provide people with information on each of these sports. Info on equipment, choosing the right stuff, what matters and what doesn’t. A few words on the history of sport, where do we come from and where are we going. History Of Wetsuits Tips on technique, how to guides for beginners. Basically all the things you wished you knew when you were just starting out and all the important info that will help you make an informed buy of your next surfboard, snowboard or whatever it is that you will be buying. The most important guides, tips and info can be found directly from the drop down menu at the top of the site. For the rest of the articles click on the desired sport in the same menu and a list of all articles related to that sport will be shown. Like at the end of this about us section everything linked to this site is displayed.

    ReplyDelete
  12. If you live in Los Angeles and need Washer Repair Service Los Angeles, we are the company to call. We have years of experience repairing all makes and models of washer. Our service is fast, effective and affordable. Plus, we stand behind our work. If you want to make sure your washer is functioning at optimal efficiency, call us. We will be there in a flash and can quickly solve any problem you are having with your washer. Whether you have an older model washer or one of the latest, high-tech ones, we can get it working in a flash. We have long provided the washer repair Los Angeles residents need.

    No matter what type of washer problem you are having, we can help. We can fix your washer if it won’t start, stopped spinning, won’t stop, is making strange noises, tripping the breaker, the drum isn’t turning or any other issue.

    We have a team of well-trained, highly skilled technicians with many years of experience repairing Washer Repairs in Los Angeles of all types. Our technicians are licensed, bonded and insured. Plus they are prompt, courteous, friendly and professional. They have the tools and expertise necessary to identify and repair any problem you are having with your washer. They will let you know if the problem is a part that is worn or broken and if the part needs to be repaired or replaced. They will let you know what the job will cost in advance, so you will not have any surprises when the work is done.

    We charge some of the lowest prices in the industry. We do a volume business, so we buy our replacement parts in bulk and pass the savings on to you. Plus, we only use quality replacement parts, so you can rest assured you are getting great value for your money. We will let you know if it will cost less and be just as sturdy if we repair or replace any part that is worn or broken. That gives you the power to decide what it will cost to get your washer working and keep it working for a long time to come.

    ReplyDelete
  13. If you live in Los Angeles and need Refrigerator Repair Service Los Angeles, we are the company to call. We have years of experience repairing all makes and models of refrigerator. Our service is fast, effective and affordable. Plus, we stand behind our work. If you want to make sure your refrigerator is functioning at optimal efficiency, call us. We will be there in a flash and can quickly solve any problem you are having with your refrigerator. Whether you have an older model refrigerator or one of the latest, high-tech ones, we can get it working in a flash. We have long provided the refrigerator repair Los Angeles residents need.

    No matter what type of refrigerator repair problem you are having, we can help. We can fix your refrigerator if it won’t start, stopped cooling, won’t stop, is making strange noises, tripping the breaker, the compressor isn’t turning or any other issue.

    We have a team of well-trained, highly skilled technicians with many years of experience repairing refrigerator of all types. Our technicians are licensed, bonded and insured. Plus they are prompt, courteous, friendly and professional. They have the tools and expertise necessary to identify and repair any problem you are having with your refrigerator. They will let you know if the problem is a part that is worn or broken and if the part needs to be repaired or replaced. They will let you know what the job will cost in advance, so you will not have any surprises when the work is done.

    We charge some of the lowest prices for Refrigerator Repair Los Angeles in the industry. We do a volume business, so we buy our replacement parts in bulk and pass the savings on to you. Plus, we only use quality replacement parts, so you can rest assured you are getting great value for your money. We will let you know if it will cost less and be just as sturdy if we repair or replace any part that is worn or broken. That gives you the power to decide what it will cost to get your refrigerator working and keep it working for a long time to come.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Are you searching for the perfect Appliance Repair Los Angeles? Did your appliance break down, and you need a qualified and experienced technician to fix it? Do not search any further; we do appliance repair Los Angeles, California. We are your one-stop shop for the highest possible quality Appliance Repair Los Angeles, Dryer Repair Los Angeles, Washer Repair Los Angeles, Refrigerator Repair Los Angeles, Dishwasher Repair Los Angeles and stove Repair Los Angeles and Oven Repair Los Angeles. We provide top-of-the-line appliance repair Los Angeles to cater to your damaged appliance as soon as possible. Our priority is the satisfaction of our clients. We draw from our more than 15 years of experience and updated technical knowledge to offer the best appliance repair Los Angeles, dryer repair Los Angeles, washer repair Los Angeles, refrigerator repair Los Angeles, dishwasher repair Los Angeles, and stove and Oven Repair Los Angeles. As a reputable repair company, we work hard to fulfill our corporate goals.

    You are assured of the best dishwasher repair Los Angeles when you hire us to repair your broken dishwasher. Your dishwasher may leave dirty or oily residues on your dishes. It may even develop electrical faults making it non-operational. Also, if your dishwasher is leaking water to the floor, call us. You should contact us immediately; we will come there directly and fix your appliance.

    We know how inconvenient it can be living with a broken refrigerator. Irrespective of the model of your refrigerator, we will help you to repair it correctly. Our technicians are among the best you can find in Los Angeles. So, we guarantee the best repair service that will make your refrigerator work perfectly and last longer. When your refrigerator runs out of gas, and it does not cool any longer, contact us through our hotlines. We will fix your refrigerator, and you will be glad.

    We Are a Factory Trained Approved And Professional Appliance Repair Company Dedicated to Providing Top-Of-The-Line Appliance Repair to Residents in the Entire Los Angeles Area & Surrounding Areas. Call Us Today!

    ReplyDelete
  15. 우리카지노 에 오신 것을 환영합니다. 국내 최고의 카지노사이트 에 가입하여 바카라사이트 에서 다양한 게임을 즐기시면서 대박의 기회를 놓치지마세요! 우리 카지노는 한국의 바카라 산업을 지배하는 카지노 사이트입니다. 우리 카지노는 한국 바카라 시장 점유율의 50 % 이상을 차지하는 10 년 이상 온라인 바카라 시장을 지배 해 왔기 때문에 우리 카지노를 모르는 사람은 거의 없습니다.

    ARTICLE: 우리카지노는 대한민국의 바카라 업계를 장악하고 있는 카지노사이트 입니다. 우리카지노가 대한 민국에서 장악한 바카라 시장점유율이 50%가 넘고 10년 넘게 온라인 바카라 시장을 장악해왔기 때문에 대한민국에서는 우리카지노를 모르는 사람은 드뭅니다. 이런 바카라 업계의 독보적인 입지 때문에 늘 유명하거나 최고만을 찾는 사람들이카지노사이트를 찾을때는 늘 우리카지노를 찾습니다.바카라를 처음 시작하시는 초보자분들에게도 우리카지노에서 카지노사이트를 시작하시기 좋은 환경입니다. 우리카지노사이트에서는 신규가입시 3만쿠폰을 지급 해주기 때문입니다. 사람들이 늘 1등만을 찾는 이유는 분명 있습니다. 다른 카지노사이트와는 달리 우리카지노를 이용하실시 에이전트를 끼고 게임을 하신다면 본사 이외에 활동쿠폰 및 오링쿠폰을 별도로 제공해주고 있기 때문입니다. 이러한 이유들 때문에 카지노사이트 업계에서 바카라를 즐기신다면 다들 우리카지노를 선호 하십니다. 카지노사이트에서 바카라를 이기기 물론 어렵습니다. 하지만 우리카지노의 에이전트를 끼고 바카라를 즐기신다면 승산이 있다고 봅니다. 우리카지노 에이전트의 연락처는 홈페이지로 연락하시면 언제든지 부담없이 소통가능 합니다. 카지노사이트를 선정할때는 바카라를 다른곳보다 유리하게 즐길 수 있는 카지노를 선택해야한다고 생각합니다. 그것이 바로 우리카지노 입니다. 이상으로 우리카지노와 바카라 카지노사이트 사이의 상관관계를 알아보았습니다 바카라사이트.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Kami adalah supplier bandar judi online dari administrasi pembentukan nomor Prediksi Togel Singapura di Indonesia. Bukan organisasi spesialis Toto yang sembrono, kami adalah bandar judi online terpercaya dan otoritas di Indonesia. Administrasi kami telah melayani pemain Indonesia selama satu dekade terakhir.

    Artinya kita bukanlah bagian baru dalam ranah taruhan togel online Indonesia. Saat ini kami memiliki banyak sekali keterlibatan yang menjadikan kami penjual lotere terbaik di Indonesia. Penjual togel online ini pun memiliki predikat sebagai organisasi spesialis terbaik dan terpercaya di Indonesia.

    Dengan gelar terbaik dan paling terpercaya yang dimiliki oleh penjual lotere online, Anda akan merasakan kepuasan terbesar dari bermain taruhan lotere. Tidak ada alasan kuat untuk ikut campur dengan kami, karena bandar toto terbaik dan terpercaya ini juga memiliki izin resmi dari kantor administrasi bandar judi online global.

    Itu menyiratkan, baik permainan maupun sifat administrasi kita sesuai dengan prinsip global. Ini juga merupakan jaminan bahwa kami biasanya membayar untuk hadiah pemain atau individu. Sejalan dengan ini, berapa pun jumlah kemenangan yang Anda peroleh bersama kami, kami akan secara konsisten membayar hadiahnya tanpa sedikit pun.

    Bandar togel online juga akan menawarkan berbagai macam penawaran menarik untuk kamu para penggemar toto Indonesia. Dengan begitu, nantinya Anda akan mendapatkan pengalaman yang paling memuaskan. Karena itu, cukup akses prediksitogelsingapore.me untuk mendaftar sehingga Anda dapat memanfaatkan administrasi terbaik kami saat ini.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Bamboo fencing is a decorative and environmentally friendly alternative to chain link or wood. Bamboo Matting has several advantages as a fencing material. First it is a grass and not a wood, so it takes less time to grow and replenish the supply. In fact it only takes 5 to 7 years to grow a mature bamboo plant for harvesting whereas wood takes 50 to 100 years. The second advantage of using bamboo as your fencing material is that it is strong and durable. Finally Bamboo Torches looks great.

    Bamboo fencing can be used for several purposes. First you can use it to create a privacy fence that not only keeps people from seeing into your yard, but that also provides a secure perimeter of your property. Secondly you can use bamboo fence for a garden fence. Finally bamboo matts can also be used to build a Awesome Bamboo fence to decorate your garden or yard.

    Bamboo fencing can be found just about anywhere. Most home improvement stores will have bamboo fence suppliers, and they will carry most of the bamboo fence supplies that you will need to both set up your bamboo fence and maintain it properly. For example they will offer the bamboo fencing materials, bamboo gates, bamboo fence panels, stains, and even hardware for assembling your bamboo fencing.

    Like any other natural product, bamboo fencing will need to be treated to prevent decay and weathering. It is recommended that you apply a thin coat of UV resistant stain to your Bamboo Fencing and Bamboo Poles to protect the bamboo from the weathering effects of your climate. Also like any other natural product, bamboo will weather, dry out, and crack over time. The amount of weathering that your bamboo will experience will depend on the weather conditions in your area, and the amount of maintenance that you do.

    Also, Bamboo matting are created using the same strong, durable, beautiful bamboo that bamboo floors are made of but they are portable and come in a variety of sizes. These mats can be found in sizes small enough to use in doorways or large enough to use as area rugs. The size choice depends on the office the mat is being used in and how much bamboo is desired in the office.

    Bamboo Poles for Sale, a vital building tool that grows 10 times faster than trees, is an increasing popular choice of furniture in America's home.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Best Legal Steroids Available on the Marketplace
    We feel everybody wants a well-toned, muscular and healthier human body. Fortunately, there are lots of procedures to accomplish this fantastic human body and on the list of strategy include integrating high legal steroids at your diet and work outs. Lawful steroids aid in quickening the bodybuilding and toning process only since they get rid of off fat fast and turn it in to muscle in a brief moment. http://legalsteroidshere.org But observe that not all of steroids pass the compulsory medical and health standards so before purchasing these services and products, be certain that you buy just legal substances. These services and products incorporate the greatest legal steroids available for sale available on the market now.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Tongkat Ali ist eine Pflanze beheimatet in Südostasien. Sie gehört zur Gattung der Bittereschengewächse und Ihr botanischer Name lautet “Eurycoma longifolia”. Es gibt noch eine weitere Reihe länderspezifischer Namen
    wie z. B. “Pasak Bumi”, Tongkat Ali wie die Pflanze in Indonesien genannt wird oder “longjack”, die allgemeine Bezeichnung für Tongkat Ali Kaufen in den USA, Kanada und Australien.

    Das Ursprungsland von Tongkat Ali Kaufen ist Indonesien, daher findet man auch dort auch die größten Bestände. Weitere Vorkommen gibt es in Ländern wie Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam und Laos.

    Die Einnahme von Tongkat Ali Kaufen empfiehlt sich insbesondere für Leistungssportler, die einen schnellen
    Muskelaufbau und Muskelzuwachs anstreben und nicht auf illegale und künstliche Substanzen zurückgreifen möchten um Ihren Testosteronspiegel zu erhöhen.

    Generell empfiehlt sich eine Einnahme von Tongkat Ali für alle Männer ab dem 30ten Lebensjahr, da in dieser Phase nachweislich die Produktion von körpereigenem Testosteron zurückgeht. Dies macht sich vor allem dadurch bemerkbar dass die körperliche Leistungsfähigkeit nachlässt, die Lust auf Sex spürbar abnimmt und dadurch allgemein das Selbstwertgefühl negativ beeinflusst wird.

    Mit der Einnahme von Tongkat Ali können Sie nachweislich Ihre Libido steigern, Ihr Testosteron erhöhen und Ihre gewohnte Lebensenergie aus den jungen Jahren Ihres Lebens wieder herbeiführen. Hier können Sie übrigens weitere Informationen bekommen zum Thema ‘Libido steigern‘ ganz natürlich. Sollten Sie daran interessiert sein lohnt es sich auch unseren Artikel über Butea Superba zu lesen.

    Tongkat Ali wächst als Strauch und kann Höhen von bis zu 12 Metern erreichen. Typischerweise dauert es 10-15 Jahre bis solche Ausmaße erreicht werden. Der Strauch trägt anfangs grüne Blüten die sich im Laufe der Zeit, bis zur Reife, rot färben.

    Allerdings sind die Blüten im Hinblick auf die Wirkung der Pflanze weniger interessant. Der wertvolle Teil verbirgt sich unter der Erde.
    Im Laufe der Jahre wachsen die Wurzeln teilweise senkrecht und bis zu mehrere Meter tief in den Boden, was die Ernte zu einer schweren und mühsamen Arbeit werden lässt. Je älter die Wurzeln sind, desto höher ist auch die Anzahl der Wirkstoffe Butea Superba.
    Von daher gilt es einige Dinge zu beachten sollten Sie Tongkat Ali kaufen wollen.

    ReplyDelete
  20. ChemLab Store Store provide you with top quaility research chemicals like: A-pvp, Methylone Crystals, buy jwh 073 powder online Methylone Powder, Pentedrone Crystals, Pentedrone Powder, MDPV Powder, Buphedrone Powder, 4-FMC Powder, 4-MemABP Powder, NEB Powder, AMT Powder, 6-APB Pellets, Butylone Powder, MDAI Powder, 4-FA Powder, 4-FA Crystals, MPA Powder, Methoxetamine, JWH-122 Powder, JWH-122 Herbal Buds, Ketamine, AM-2201, Herbal Buds, We have a wide range of products including JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, JWH-250, 4-MEC, 5-IAI, Phenazepam, 2c-i, Actavis Promethazine, Naphyrone, U-47700. Methedrone, crystal meth and other chemicals in all different amounts ranging from 5gm to 1kg retail and also large amounts at wholesale prices, When you buy Research Chemicals or bath salts from us you are guaranteed of the highest quality available on the market, high purity products, secure payment, fast and discreet international delivery.

    Disclaimer: None of the Products on ChemLab Research Chem Store are intended for human consumption and Neither ChemLab Research Chem Store,

    nor any of the staff INCLUDING the owner of ChemLab Online Chem Store resume ANY responsibility for ANY injuries to ANY individual who does not correspond with this warning and will not be held accountable for any loss or damages due to an individual burning, inhaling, or consuming into the body of any human being, animal or living specimen. This statement applies to all of the products sold on this site.

    By purchasing ANY PRODUCT ON THIS SITE, You Agree to be held 100% liable for any personal injury or damages due to you (Customer) using any of the products in any way other than that manufacturer’s instructions of use printed on the package!

    ReplyDelete
  21. Health Experts have proven that regular exercise coupled with a good diet allow you to live longer and healthier. In this busy day and age, not everyone has the time to go to the gym - resulting to a lot of overweight people that desperately need to exercise. A healthy alternative is for you to Buy Home Gym Equipments that you can store in your own home or even at your office. Here are some tips when buying home gym equipment.

    First, know your fitness goals and keep these goals in mind when you are buying home gym equipment. One of the biggest mistakes that people make is buying the biggest or trendiest fitness machine simply because they like how it looks. More often than not, these end up gathering dust in your storage rooms or garage because you never end up using them. It is important to take note of what particular type of physical activity you want or enjoy doing before you buy your exercise machine. If you are looking to loose a few pounds and you enjoy walking or hiking, a treadmill is the best option for you. If you are looking to tone your lower body while burning calories a stationary bike is your obvious choice. Similarly, Special Equipments for Core Strength Exercises, Strength Training Weight Vests, Core Strength & Abdominal Trainers, Home Cardio Training, Strength Training Power Cages, Strength Training Racks & More.

    Second, set aside a budget before Buying Home Gym Equipments. Quality exercise machines do not come cheap. They are constantly exposed to wear and tear when they are used properly. So, pick machines that are built to last and have passed quality certifications to get the most out of your money. If you are operating on a tight budget, think about investing in several weights, We can Provide you High Quality Home Gym Equipments at Very Low Prices for your Complete Uses: Core Strength Exercises, Strength Training Weight Vests, Core Strength & Abdominal Trainers, Home Cardio Training, Strength Training Power Cages, Strength Training Racks & More.

    Its the Right Time to Buy Home Gym Equipments for you at Very Low Prices.

    ReplyDelete
  22. PMP certification is the globally recognized certification for project management. It is the validity given by the PMI Institute to candidates who clear certain education and professional criteria - Pass PMP.

    There are many ways to Pass PMP certification.


    Go for the heavy books, memorize them, sit for PMP trainings on your weekend, sit in the long, sleepy PMP video on demand trainings and still have the unsurety of passing the exam.
    Get PMP dumps, PMP practice exams, PMP review material and try to memorize hundreds of questions and still fear of forgetting some and getting new questions as PMP changes very frequently.
    Contact CBTproxy and through PMP proxy exam, PMP Brain Dump get your PMP certification without any hassle.
    There are several sites selling PMP dumps and PMP exam questions which are 90% not reliable. Since there are always new questions in PMP exam, there is no reliability on the PMP dumps. Contact CBTproxy and through our PMP proxy exam, Pass PMP Certification without any hassle. We ensure first time passing guarantee and liberate the candidate from taking the real exam multiple times - PMP dumps.

    ReplyDelete
  23. Buy Dank Now began as an idea to create a top-notch delivery service for buy weed online in the US and quickly evolved in much more. Even though California accepted Safe to Buy Marijuana Online in 1996, we felt there was still a major lacking in quality and service. From what once started as a humble, flower-child type movement, evolved into the next California gold rush.

    Buy Dank Now Shop is committed to ensuring that your privacy and security is protected at all times, in fact, we care so much that we offer guaranteed stealth delivery to anywhere in the world at no extra cost! Buy Weed Online, Glo Carts, Glo Extracts, Glo Cart, Glo Cartridges, Glo thc Carts, Glo vape, Lions Breath Carts, Big Chief Carts and All orders are fully guaranteed, so whatever happens, nothing will ever stand between you and your weed!

    With literally thousands upon thousands of amazing strains from the best breeders in the world, ranging from famous cup-winners to potent, CBD-laden medical strains, High THC powerhouses, Glo Extracts, famous cheese to Buy Marijuana Online and Glo Carts popular white widow strains, all the way through to some of the rarest, hardest-to-find varieties in the world.

    Why Is Marijuana Effective for Treating Anxiety? Conventional medicine uses several different kinds of drugs to treat anxiety disorders, including serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Zoloft and tranquilizers like Valium. However, many patients don’t respond well to these medications. One of the non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in marijuana that is commonly used to treat anxiety is cannabidiol (CBD). Various scientists and researchers have experimented with both animals and humans to test the effectiveness of CBD for anxiety treatment.

    You can get it all right here at Buy Dank Now! Because we only ever work with breeders who meet our rigorous quality standards, you can be sure that whatever products you get from our Website such as, Glo Carts, Glo Extracts, Glo Cart, Glo Cartridges, Glo thc Carts, Glo vape, Lions Breath Carts, Big Chief Carts, they’ll make exceptional additions to your genetic library!

    ReplyDelete
  24. Descubre los mejores diseños de alfombras vinilicas y azulejos adhesivos para decoración e interiorismo. Alfombras infantiles Envío gratis

    ReplyDelete
  25. Looking to purchase a business? Considering selling your business? Plan on becoming a franchisee? MetroBizPros can assist you. Experts in District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, Franchise Consultants Virginia and throughout the US.

    ReplyDelete
  26. Archie 420 Dispensary is a trusted Cannabis dispensary base in Los Angeles California USA. It is one of the top dispensary in this part of the country. Top shelf Bubba kush for sales They do deliver Marijuana in the USA and to over 25 countries in the world. You can always visit their dispensary in Los Angeles using the address on their website. Place your order and get served by the best dispensary in the planet. Have fun.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Crystal online pharmacy is a trusted online drug store with a wide range of products to suit the needs of our clients. Buy Magnesium online Crystal Pharmacy do strive to offer the best service and ship products world wide. All the products listed on our website are Ava in stock. Expect your order to be processed Immediately when you send us your request. We deal with varieties of drugs for our customers satisfaction. We cross barriers with our products and struggle hard to meet human satisfaction. When shopping with us, Be safe and secured and you will realize how swift we are with our services.

    ReplyDelete
  28. Universal Gun sales is a trusted Firearm company base in Los Angeles California USA. It is one of the top Firearms Company in this part of the country. Short guns for sales They do offer the best firearms deal in the USA and to over 25 countries in the world. You can always visit their shop in Los Angeles using the address on their website. Place your order and get served by the best Firearm Company in the planet. Have fun.

    ReplyDelete
  29. If you own a business, you know how important it is to advertise your product with Custom Paper Packaging and market your business’s story with Custom Paper Packaging around the World. A big part of that story is you should tie with a Reputed Paper Bags Factory which Provide you Top Quality of Custom Paper Packaging. Worldwide shipping has become a huge industry and Custom Kraft Paper Bags being a major contributor. We believe Custom Kraft Paper Bags have significant influence, whether they’re Manufactured from Paper Bag Manufacturer OR A Custom Paper Packaging Company.

    You should also consider looking for Custom Kraft Paper Boxes if you are planning to setup a business. This is to make sure your items are safe and protected from damage when your customers buy them. There are many companies providing these types of services but very few which provide Super Quality Custom Printed Paper bags. Choose the best one providing good materials and design for Custom Printed Paper bags. Custom Printed Paper bags are also an ideal way to promote your products and services. A good product packaging may drive more customers in the future.

    HDPK.Com being a Trusted Custom Kraft Paper Bag Supplier may Produce form of Custom Kraft Paper Bags, Custom Kraft Paper Boxes, Custom Printed Paper bags, brown kraft paper bags, Custom Printed Wrapping Paper or Custom Printed Hang Tags - made according to your design and company image. Attractive packaging entices customers to keep buying from you. Some people also tend to keep and reuse nifty paper bags from stores. This helps promote your store or company to more people. This article will give you more ideas when looking for custom or bespoke packaging services for your business.

    Every Custom Paper Packaging Material will be crafted just for you. You can even customize every inch of the Custom Kraft Paper Bags, Custom Kraft Paper Boxes, Custom Printed Paper bags, brown kraft paper bags, Custom Printed Wrapping Paper or Custom Printed Hang Tags inside and out, while our cutting-edge machines will guarantee you love the quality of your finished packaging boxes. Not many people spend their time thinking about paper packaging – but we do! We believe in pursuing ‘economic growth with a conscious,’ and every product we design is guided by that underlying principle. This allows us to continually meet the needs of our customers, our employees, our world society and the future of humanity.

    Our clients include well-known domestic and global corporations representing a wide range of industries (including fashion, sports, cosmetics, and food and beverage businesses). We are also currently experiencing an increased market penetration in North America, European Union, Southeast Asia and Middle-East. Whether it’s a ‘business to business’ or a business to customer’ relationship, we aspire to be the ‘best of the best! From raw materials, procurement, incoming testing and production control to the final product inspection phase, every process and link in our supply chain adheres to our meticulous quality control protocol.

    Please feel free to contact us for more information if you're searching for a Trusted Custom Kraft Paper Bag Supplier. We appreciate your business!

    ReplyDelete
  30. Understanding about Synthetic Thatch is important to get a Solid Roof for your Homes, Beach Resorts, Water Parks and Restaurants. Synthetic Thatch Roofs are the ultimate roofing choice for making Roofs look cozy, ethnic, Synthetic Bamboo Poles or even tropical. Because Synthetic thatch makes such a Perfect Roofing Material, Our Synthetic Thatch Roofing Material with Synthetic Bamboo Panels Products can Never Replaced by Any Other Conventional Roofing Materials.Aluminum Bamboo , Bamboo Fence and Artificial Bamboo evokes with the feeling of beach resorts, relaxing vacations and tropical atmospheres. However, the natural thatch and bamboo has a variety of downsides, such as Fire Hazards, wind issues, insects and rotting. Even though the initial cost is only a little bit lower than synthetic products when you purchase on season Bamboo Poles for Sale but the maintenance fee in the future is a nightmare.
    Tiki torches & Synthetic Bamboo Poles with Artificial Bamboo Products for Synthetic Bamboo Matting offer an easy way to build Homes, Beach resorts, Water Parks and Restaurants anywhere without worrying about maintenance fee.Our Synthetic Thatch Roofing Material & Artificial Bamboo Products Made from Very High in Quality, long-lasting, eco-friendly, fire-retardant and UV-Resistant Synthetic thatch roofing material with are Maintenance-Free. Our Synthetic Thatch Roofing Products are created using molds taken from real synthetic thatch and Artificial bamboo. This allows our products to look exactly like the natural products while being made from a durable, long-lasting, and maintenance-free material.You’ll be astonished at how well our Bamboo Panels withstand ocean breeze, heavy rain, snow storm, intense sunlight and general wear & tear for more than 20 years while still looking amazing.

    ReplyDelete
  31. A player is likely to get assistance in a day since a technical
    problem is reported. Software downloads don't cost anything, nevertheless
    they have certain hardware specifications.
    Finnish poker pro Jens Kyllonen can make history when he becomes one of the primary individuals
    to attempt a passenger voyage to space in 2014.
    카지노커뮤니티

    ReplyDelete
  32. Health Experts have proven that regular exercise coupled with a good diet allow you to live longer and healthier. In this busy day and age, not everyone has the time to go to the gym - resulting to a lot of overweight people that desperately need to exercise. A healthy alternative is for you to Buy Home Gym Equipments that you can store in your own home or even at your office. Here are some tips when buying home gym equipment.

    First, know your fitness goals and keep these goals in mind when you are buying home gym equipment. One of the biggest mistakes that people make is buying the biggest or trendiest fitness machine simply because they like how it looks. More often than not, these end up gathering dust in your storage rooms or garage because you never end up using them. It is important to take note of what particular type of physical activity you want or enjoy doing before you buy your exercise machine. If you are looking to loose a few pounds and you enjoy walking or hiking, a treadmill is the best option for you. If you are looking to tone your lower body while burning calories a stationary bike is your obvious choice. Similarly, Special Equipments for Core Strength Exercises, Strength Training Weight Vests, Core Strength & Abdominal Trainers, Home Cardio Training, Strength Training Power Cages, Strength Training Racks & More.

    Second, set aside a budget before Buying Home Gym Equipment. Quality exercise machines do not come cheap. They are constantly exposed to wear and tear when they are used properly. So, pick machines that are built to last and have passed quality certifications to get the most out of your money. If you are operating on a tight budget, think about investing in several weights, We can Provide you High Quality Home Gym Equipment at Very Low Prices for your Complete Uses: Core Strength Exercises, Strength Training Weight Vests, Core Strength & Abdominal Trainers, Home Cardio Training, Strength Training Power Cages, Strength Training Racks & More.

    Its the Right Time to Buy Home Gym Equipment for you at Very Low Prices.

    ReplyDelete
  33. I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you’ve done your best, with so much class. 먹튀검증

    ReplyDelete
  34. Wir sind eine deutsche Tierbestattung. Wir arbeiten mit Partnern in Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz zusammen.
    [img]https://i.imgur.com/JfCfEGy.jpg[/img]

    In nur wenigen Schritten kannst du bei uns online eine Tierbestattung inkl. Einzelkremierung und biologisch abbaubarer Tierurne in Auftrag geben.

    Lass dein verstorbenes Tier in einem Animal Tree® weiterleben.

    Wenn dein Tier stirbt, kümmern wir uns umgehend. Ob Hund, Katze oder ein anderes geliebtes Tier, wir holen dein Haustier zu Hause oder beim Tierarzt ab und sorgen für einen guten letzten Weg über die Regenbogenbrücke.

    Die Animal Tree® Tierbestattung ist so anders, einfach und schön. Tier im garten begraben Lasse dein verstorbenes Tier in unserem Animal Tree® weiterleben und schaffe dir so deinen Platz des Erinnerns.

    Uns sind kurze Wege wichtig, deshalb arbeiten wir immer mit regionalen Kleintierkrematorien zusammen.

    Mit unserer biologisch abbaubaren Tierurne wird aus der Asche deines Tieres über die Jahre ein Baum wachsen, der voller Erinnerungen an dein Haustier ist.

    ReplyDelete